Into this temple all the people entred that were distinguished from the rest by being pure, and observant of the laws. But he made that temple which was beyond this a wonderful one indeed; and such as exceeds all description in words; nay, if I may so say, is hardly believed upon sight. For when he had filled up great valleys with earth, which on account of their immense depth could not be looked on, when you bended down to see them, without pain; and had elevated the ground four hundred cubits, he made it to be on a level with the top of the mountain, on which the temple was built: How Solomon removed the ark into the temple; how he made supplication to God ; and offered publick sacrifices to him.
And when this invitation of the whole body of the people to come to Jerusalem was every where carried abroad, it was the seventh month before they came together: The feast of tabernacles happened to fall at the same time: So they carried the ark, and the tabernacle which Moses had pitched, and all the vessels that were for ministration to the sacrifices of God, and removed them to the temple.
For they did not grow weary either of singing hymns, or of dancing, until they came to the temple. And in this manner did they carry the ark. But when they should transfer it into the most secret place, the rest of the multitude went away; and only those Priests that carried it set it between the two cherubims: Now the ark contained nothing else but those two tables of stone that preserved the ten commandments, which God spake to Moses in mount Sinai; and which were engraved upon them. But they set the candlestick, and table, and the golden altar, in the temple, before the most secret place, in the very same places wherein they stood till that time in the tabernacle.
So they offered up the daily sacrifices.
But for the brazen altar, Solomon set it before the temple, over against the door: And all the rest of the vessels they gathered together, and put them within the temple. Now as soon as the Priests had put all things in order about the ark, and were gone out, there came down a thick cloud and stood there, and spread it self, after a gentle manner, into the temple: This cloud so darkened the place, that one Priest could not discern another: So these men were intent upon this thought. But Solomon rose up, for he was sitting before and used such words to God as he thought agreeable to the divine nature to receive, and fit for him to give.
I have indeed built this temple to thee and thy name; that from thence when we sacrifice, and perform sacred operations, we may send our prayers up into the air; and may constantly believe that thou art present, and art not remote from what is thine own. For neither when thou seest all things, and hearest all things, nor now, when it pleases thee to dwell here, dost thou leave the care of all men; but rather thou art very near to them all: How he had shewed all things that were come to pass to David his father: And how he had given him his name, and told to David what he should be called before he was born: For the Deity stands in need of nothing: But so far as we have been made superior, O Lord, to other animals by thee, it becomes us to bless thy majesty; and it is necessary for us to return thee thanks for what thou hast bestowed upon our house, and on the Hebrew people.
For with what other instrument can we better appease thee, when thou art angry at us, or more properly preserve thy favour, than with our voice? Which as we have it from the air, so do we know that by that air it ascends upwards [towards thee. And I beseech thee for the time to come to afford us whatsoever thou, O God, hast power to bestow on such as thou dost esteem; and to augment our house for all ages, as thou hast promised to David my father to do, both in his life- time, and at his death; that our Kingdom shall continue, and that his posterity should successively receive it to ten thousand generations.
Do not thou therefore fail to give us these blessings, and to bestow on my children that virtue in which thou delightest. And besides all this, I humbly beseech thee that thou wilt let some portion of thy spirit come down and inhabit in this temple; that thou mayst appear to be with us upon earth. As to thy self, the intire heavens, and the immensity of the things that are therein, are but a small habitation for thee: But I intreat thee to keep it, as thine own house, from being destroyed by our enemies for ever: But if this people be found to have sinned, and be thereupon afflicted by thee with any plague, because of their sin; as with dearth, or pestilence, or any other affliction which thou usest to inflict on those that transgress any of thy holy laws; and if they fly all of them to this temple, beseeching thee, and begging of thee to deliver them; then do thou hear their prayer, as being within thine house, and have mercy upon them, and deliver them from their afflictions.
Nay moreover this help is what I implore of thee, not for the Hebrews only, when they are in distress; but when any shall come hither from any ends of the world whatsoever, and shall return from their sins, and implore thy pardon, do thou then pardon them, and hear their prayer.
For hereby all shall learn that thou thy self wast pleased with the building of this house for thee; and that we are not our selves of an unsociable nature, nor behave ourselves like enemies to such as are not of our own people; but are willing that thy assistance should be communicated by thee to all men in common; and that they may have the enjoyment of thy benefits bestowed upon them. When Solomon had said this, and had cast himself upon the ground, and worshipped a long time, he arose up, and brought sacrifices to the altar: For there came a fire running out of the air, and rushed with violence upon the altar, in the sight of all; and caught hold of and consumed the sacrifices.
He exhorted them also to be mindful, that by what methods they had attained their present good things, by the same they must preserve them sure to themselves, and make them greater and more than they were at present. For that it was not sufficient for them to suppose they had received them on account of their piety and righteousness; but that they had no other way of preserving them for the time to come. For that it is not so great a thing for men to acquire somewhat which they want, as to preserve what they have acquired; and to be guilty of no sin, whereby it may be hurt.
So when the King had spoken thus to the multitude, he dissolved the congregation: Insomuch that he sacrificed twenty and two thousand oxen; and an hundred and twenty thousand sheep. For then it was that the temple did first of all taste of the victims; and all the Hebrews with their wives and children feasted therein.
Nay besides this, the King then observed splendidly and magnificently the feast, which is called the feast of tabernacles, before the temple, for twice seven days; and he then feasted, together with all the people. When all these solemnities were abundantly satisfied, and nothing was omitted that concerned the divine worship, the King dismissed them; and they every one went to their own homes: They also took their journey home with rejoicing, and making merry, and singing hymns to God. And indeed the pleasure they enjoyed took away the sense of the pains they all underwent in their journey home.
So when they had brought the ark into the temple, and had seen its greatness, and how fine it was, and had been partakers of the many sacrifices that had been offered, and of the festivals that had been solemnized, they every one returned to their own cities. And for himself, it said, that if he continued according to the admonitions of his father; he would advance him to an immense degree of dignity and happiness: But that still, if he should be a betrayer of the ordinances of the law, and forget them, and turn away to the worship of strange gods, he would cut him off by the roots; and would neither suffer any remainder of his family to continue; nor would overlook the people of Israel, or preserve them any longer from afflictions; but would utterly destroy them with ten thousand wars and misfortunes; would cast them out of the land which he had given their fathers, and make them sojourners in strange lands; and deliver that temple, which was now built, to be burnt and spoiled by their enemies; and that city to be utterly overthrown by the hands of their enemies; and make their miseries deserve to be a proverb; and such as should very hardly be credited for their stupendous magnitude: And that the answer that should be made by the remainder of the people should be, by confessing their sins, and their transgression of the laws of their countrey.
How Solomon built himself a royal palace, very costly, and splendid: For he was not equally zealous in the building of this palace, as he had been about the temple. But the palace, which was a building much inferior in dignity to the temple; both on account that its materials had not been so long beforehand gotten ready, nor had been so zealously prepared; and on account that this was only an habitation for Kings, and not for God, it was longer in finishing.
However this building was raised so magnificently, as suited the happy state of the countrey of the Hebrews, and of the King thereof. But it is necessary that I describe the intire structure, and disposition of the parts: This house was a large and curious building; and was supported by many pillars; which Solomon built to contain a multitude for hearing causes, and taking cognisance of suits.
It was sufficiently capacious to contain a great body of men; who would come together to have their causes determined. It was an hundred cubits long, and fifty broad, and thirty high; supported by quadrangular pillars, which were all of cedar: There was also another house so ordered, that its intire breadth was placed in the middle.
It was quadrangular; and its breadth was thirty cubits: In which temple there was a large and very glorious room, wherein the King sat in judgment. To this was joined another house that was built for his Queen. There were other smaller edifices for diet, and for sleep, after publick matters were over: Some of these Solomon built with stones of ten cubits; and wainscotted the walls with other stones that were sawed, and were of great value; such as are dug out of the earth for the ornaments of temples, and to make fine prospects in royal palaces; and which make the mines, whence they are dug, famous.
Now the contexture of the curious workmanship of these stones was in three rows; but the fourth row would make one admire its sculptures: Those trees and plants covered the stone that was beneath them, and their leaves were wrought so prodigious thin and subtile that you would think they were in motion. But the other part up to the roof was plaistered over, and, as it were, embroidered with colours and pictures.
He moreover built other edifices for pleasure: Now it is very hard to reckon up the magnitude, and the variety of the royal apartments; how many rooms there were of the largest sort; how many of a bigness inferior to those; and how many that were subterraneous and invisible; the curiosity of those that enjoyed the fresh air; and the groves for the most delightful prospect; for the avoiding the heat, and covering of their bodies. And to say all in brief, Solomon made the whole building intirely of white stone, and cedar wood, and gold, and silver.
He also adorned the roofs and the walls with stones set in gold, and beautified them thereby in the same manner as he had beautified the temple of God with the like stones. He also made himself a throne of prodigious bigness of ivory; constructed as a seat of justice; and having six steps to it. On every one of which stood, on each end of the step, two lions: And besides these, he granted him certain cities of Galilee, twenty in number, that lay not far from Tyre: And after that time these cities were called the land of Cabul: Moreover the King of Tyre sent sophisms and enigmatical sayings to Solomon, and desired he would solve them, and free them from the ambiguity that was in them.
Now so sagacious and understanding was Solomon, that none of these problems were too hard for him; but he conquered them all by his reasonings; and discovered their hidden meaning, and brought it to light. He also went and cut down materials of timber out of the mountain called Libanus , for the roof of temples: Under this King there was Abdemon, a very youth in age; who always conquered the difficult problems which Solomon King of Jerusalem commanded him to explain. He raised the eastern parts of the city higher; and made the city it self larger.
He also joined the temple of Jupiter, which before stood by it self, to the city, by raising a bank in the middle between them; and he adorned it with donations of gold. Moreover he went up to mount Libanus, and cut down materials of wood for the building of the temples. But that he afterward did solve the proposed riddles by means of Abdemon, a man of Tyre: How Solomon fortified the city of Jerusalem ; and built great cities: Hazor, and Megiddo; and the third Gezer: For which reason the King rebuilt it, as a city that was naturally strong, and might be useful in wars, and the mutations of affairs that sometimes happen.
Moreover he built two other cities, not far from it, Beth-horon was the name of one of them, and Baalath of the other. He also built other cities that lay conveniently for these, in order to the enjoyment of pleasures and delicacies in them; such as were naturally of a good temperature of the air, and agreeable for fruits ripe in their proper seasons; and well watered with springs. Nay Solomon went as far as the desert above Syria, and possessed himself of it; and built there a very great city, which was distant two days journey from the upper Syria, and one days journey from Euphrates, and six long days journey from Babylon the great.
When he had therefore built this city, and encompassed it with very strong walls, he gave it the name of Tadmor ; and that is the name it is still called by at this day among the Syrians; but the Greeks name it Palmyra. Pharaoh in the Egyptian tongue signifies a King. For thus it was also that the Kings of Alexandria, who were called formerly by other names, when they took the Kingdom were named Ptolemies , from their first King.
For when after their death there was a Queen reigned, he calls her by her name, Nicaule: As for my self, I have discovered from our own Books, that after Pharaoh, the father-in-law of Solomon, no other King of Egypt did any longer use that name; and that it was after that time when the fore-named Queen of Egypt and Ethiopia came to Solomon: But I have now made mention of these things, that I may prove that our Books and those of the Egyptians agree together in many things.
But King Solomon subdued to himself the remnant of the Canaanites, that had not before submitted to him; those I mean that dwelt in mount Lebanon, and as far as the city Hamath; and ordered them to pay tribute.
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He also chose out of them every year such as were to serve him in the meanest offices, and to do his domestick works, and to follow husbandry. For none of the Hebrews were servants [in such low employments. While all the Israelites were concerned in warlike affairs, and were in armour, and set over the chariots, and the horses; rather than leading the life of slaves. He appointed also five hundred and fifty rulers over those Canaanites who were reduced to such domestick slavery; who received the intire care of them from the King, and instructed them in those labours and operations wherein he wanted their assistance.
Moreover the King built many ships in the Egyptian bay of the Red Sea; in a certain place called Ezion-geber. It is now called Berenice ; and is not far from the city Eloth. This countrey belonged formerly to the Jews; and became useful for shipping, from the donations of Hiram King of Tyre.
For he sent a sufficient number of men thither for pilots, and such as were skilful in navigation: And when they had gathered four hundred talents 9 together, they returned to the King again.
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When this Queen heard of the virtue and prudence of Solomon, she had a great mind to see him: Accordingly she came to Jerusalem with great splendour, and rich furniture. For she brought with her camels laden with gold, with several sorts of sweet spices, and with precious stones. So she was amazed at the wisdom of Solomon: And especially she was surprized at the fineness and largeness of his royal palace; and not less so at the good order of the apartments.
For she observed that the King had therein shewn great wisdom. But she was beyond measure astonished at the house which was called the forest of Lebanon: Nor was she less affected with those daily sacrifices which were offered to God; and the careful management which the Priests and Levites used about them. When she saw this done every day, she was in the greatest admiration imaginable: For as for the report, it only attempted to persuade our hearing; but did not so make known the dignity of the things themselves as does the sight of them, and being present among them.
I indeed who did not believe what was reported, by reason of the multitude and grandeur of the things I enquired about, do see them to be much more numerous than they were reported to be. Accordingly I esteem the Hebrew people, as well as thy servants and friends, to be happy, who enjoy thy presence, and hear thy wisdom every day continually. One would therefore bless God who hath so loved this countrey, and those that inhabit therein, as to make thee King over them. Now when the Queen had thus demonstrated in words how deeply the King had affected her, she made that her disposition known by certain presents.
For she gave him twenty talents 10 of gold; and an immense quantity of spices, and pretious stones. And as he was very generous and liberal in his own temper, so did he shew the greatness of his soul in bestowing on her what she her self desired of him.
So when this Queen of Egypt and of Ethiopia had obtained what we have already given an account of, and had again communicated to the King what she brought with her, she returned to her own Kingdom. How Solomon grew rich, and fell desperately in love with women: Concerning the death of Solomon. The wood which was brought to him at this time was larger and finer, than any that had ever been brought before. But let no one imagine that these pine trees were like those which are now so named, and which take that their denomination from the merchants, who so call them that they may procure them to be admired by those that purchase them.
For those we speak of were to the sight like the wood of the fig-tree; but were whiter and more shining. Now we have said thus much, that no body may be ignorant of the difference between these sorts of wood; nor unacquainted with the nature of the genuine pine tree.
And we thought it both a seasonable and human thing when we mentioned it, and the uses the King made of it, to explain this difference so far as we have done. Now the weight of gold that was brought him was six hundred sixty six talents: He also cast two hundred targets of gold, each of them weighing six hundred shekels. He also made three hundred shields; every one weighing three pounds of gold: He also made cups of gold, and of [precious] stones, for the entertainment of his guests; and had them adorned in the most artificial manner: For the King had many ships, which lay upon the sea of Tarsus: This addition that he made to those chariots and horses which he had before from these that were sent him, augmented the number of his chariots by above four hundred; for he had a thousand before: These horses also were so much exercised, in order to their making a fine appearance, and running swiftly, that no others could upon the comparison appear either finer or swifter: Their riders also were a farther ornament to them: They had also very long heads of hair, hanging down; and were clothed in garments of Tyrian purple.
They had also dust of gold every day sprinkled on their hair; so that their heads sparkled with the reflection of the suns beams from the gold. The King himself rode upon a chariot in the midst of these men, who were still in armour, and had their bows fitted to them. He had on a white garment; and used to take his progress out of the city in the morning. There was a certain place about fifty furlongs 11 distant from Jerusalem, which is called Etham: Now Solomon had a divine sagacity in all things; and was very diligent and studious to have things done after an elegant manner.
So he did not neglect the care of the ways; but he laid a causway of black stone along the roads that led to Jerusalem, which was the royal city: He also parted his chariots, and set them in a regular order; that a certain number of them should be in every city: And the King made silver so plentiful in Jerusalem, as stones in the street; and so multiplied cedar trees in the plains of Judea, which did not grow there before, that they were like the multitude of common sycamore trees.
Conquerors & Kings (Wanderers in Time, Book 3) by Derrick Tribble
Nay he forsook the observation of the laws of his fathers, and came to an end no way suitable to our foregoing history of him. He grew mad in his love of women, and laid no restraint on himself in his lusts. Nor was he satisfied with the women of his own country alone; but he married many wives out of foreign nations; Sidonians, and Tyrians, and Ammonites, and Edomites; and he transgressed the laws of Moses, which forbad Jews to marry any but those that were of their own people.
He also began to worship their gods: This very thing our legislator suspected, and so admonished us before hand, that we should not marry women of other countries, lest we should be intangled with foreign customs, and apostatize from our own: But Solomon was fallen headlong into unreasonable pleasures, and regarded not those admonitions. He was forced to give them this demonstration of his kindness and affection to them, to live according to the laws of their countries. And as he grew into years, and his reason became weaker by length of time, it was not sufficient to recall to his mind the institutions of his own countrey: And this he did notwithstanding that he had his father, as a most excellent and domestick pattern of virtue; and knew what a glorious character he had left behind him, because of his piety towards God.
Nor did he imitate David, although God had twice appeared to him in his sleep, and exhorted him to imitate his father. So he died ingloriously. When Solomon heard this he was grieved, and greatly confounded, upon this change of almost all that happiness which had made him to be admired, into so bad a state. Nor had there much time passed after the Prophet had foretold what was coming, before God raised up an enemy against him; whose name was Ader: He was a child, of the stock of the Edomites, and of the blood royal.
And when he was grown up he loved him exceedingly: When Hadad heard in Egypt that both David and Joab were dead, he came to Pharaoh, and desired that he would permit him to go to his own countrey. Upon which the King asked what it was that he wanted, and what hardship he had met with, that he was so desirous to leave him? And when he was often troublesome to him, and intreated him to dismiss him, he did not then do it. There he light upon one Rezon , who had run away from Hadadezer, King of Zobah, 13 his master, and was become a robber in that countrey; and joined friendship with him, who had already a band of robbers about him.
So he went up, and seized upon that part of Syria, and was made King thereof. He also made incursions into the land of Israel; and did it no small mischief, and spoiled it, and that in the life- time of Solomon. And this was the calamity which the Hebrews suffered by Hadad. He was left a child by his father, and brought up by his mother; and when Solomon saw that he was of an active and bold disposition, he made him the curator of the walls which he built round about Jerusalem.
And he took such care of those works, that the King approved of his behavior, and gave him, as a reward for the same, the charge over the tribe of Joseph.
Seeing therefore thou knowest the cause for which God hath changed his mind, and is alienated from Solomon, be thou righteous, and keep the laws: So Jeroboam was elevated by these words of the Prophet: And when he had so great a charge in the government, and called to mind what had been revealed to him by Ahijah, he endeavoured to persuade the people to forsake Solomon; to make a disturbance; and to bring the government over to himself.
But when Solomon understood his intention and treachery, he sought to catch him and kill him. But Jeroboam was informed of it beforehand; and fled to Shishak, the King of Egypt; and there abode till the death of Solomon. By which means he gained these two advantages; to suffer no harm from Solomon, and to be preserved for the Kingdom. He was buried in Jerusalem: How, upon the death of Solomon , the people forsook his son Rehoboam ; and ordained Jeroboam King over the ten tribes.
And when he was come to them, to the city Shechem, Rehoboam came to it also. For he had resolved to declare himself King to the Israelites, while they were there gathered together. This delay gave occasion to a present suspicion; since he had not given them a favourable answer to their mind immediately: However they thought that his consultation about it, and that he did not presently give them a denial, afforded them some good hope of success.
Upon which they gave him the advice which became friends, and those that knew the temper of such a multitude: God himself, I suppose, causing what was most advantagious to be condemned by him. So he called for the young men, who were brought up with him, and told them what advice the elders had given him; and bid them speak what they thought he ought to do. So they advised him to give the following answer to the people: Accordingly when the multitude was come together to hear his answer on the third day, all the people were in great expectation, and very intent to hear what the King would say to them: Now this was done according to the will of God; that what Ahijah had foretold might come to pass.
By these words the people were struck, as it were by an iron hammer; and were so grieved at the words, as if they had already felt the effects of them: Nay they were so bitter, and retained their wrath so long, that when he sent Adoram, which was over the tribute, that he might pacify them, and render them milder, and persuade them to forgive him, if he had said any thing that was rash or grievous to them in his youth, they would not bear it; but threw stones at him, and killed him.
When Rehoboam saw this, he thought himself aimed at by those stones, with which the multitude had killed his servant; and feared lest he should undergo the last of punishments in earnest. So he got immediately into his chariot, and fled to Jerusalem. Where the tribe of Judah and that of Benjamin ordained him for their King. But the rest of the multitude forsook the sons of David, from that day; and appointed Jeroboam to be the ruler of their publick affairs. But he was forbidden of God by the Prophet [Shemaiah] to go to war.
For that it was not just, that brethren of the same countrey should fight against one another. He also said, that this defection of the multitude was according to the purpose of God. So he did not proceed in this expedition. And now I will relate first the actions of Jeroboam, the King of Israel. After which we will relate, what are therewith connected, the actions of Rehoboam, the King of the two tribes.
By this means we shall preserve the good order of the history intire. When therefore Jeroboam had built him a palace in the city Shechem, he dwelt there. He also built him another at Penuel, a city so called. And now the feast of tabernacles was approaching in a little time, Jeroboam considered, that if he should permit the multitude to go to worship God at Jerusalem, and there to celebrate the festival, they would probably repent of what they had done, and be enticed by the temple, and by the worship of God there performed; and would leave him, and return to their first King; and, if so, he should run the risque of losing his own life.
So he invented this contrivance: And when he had called those ten tribes together over whom he ruled, he made a speech to the people in these words: On which account I do not think it right for you to go so long a journey to Jerusalem, which is an enemies city, to worship him. It was a man that built the temple: I have also made two golden heifers, dedicated to the same God; and the one of them I have consecrated in the city Bethel; and the other in Dan: And I will ordain for you certain Priests and Levites from among your selves; that you may have no want of the tribe of Levi, or of the sons of Aaron.
But let him that is desirous among you of being a Priest bring to God a bullock and a ram: This was the beginning of miseries to the Hebrews: But we shall relate those things in their proper places hereafter. When the feast [of tabernacles] was just approaching, Jeroboam was desirous to celebrate it himself in Bethel; as did the two tribes celebrate it in Jerusalem. Accordingly he built an altar before the heifer, and undertook to be High Priest himself.
So he went up to the altar, with his own Priests about him. But when he was going to offer the sacrifices, and the burnt-offerings, in the sight of all the people, a Prophet, whose name was Jadon , was sent by God, and came to him from Jerusalem: However, that this people may believe that these things shall so come to pass, I foretel a sign to them that shall also come to pass. This altar shall be broken to pieces immediately: But that hand which he stretched out was enfeebled, and he was not able to pull it in again to him: The altar also was broken to pieces; and all that was upon it was poured out: So the King understood that he was a man of veracity, and had a divine foreknowledge; and intreated him to pray unto God, that he would restore his right hand.
Accordingly the Prophet did pray to God to grant him that request. So the King having received his hand recovered to its natural state, rejoiced at it; and invited the Prophet to sup with him. For that was a thing God had forbidden him to do: How Jadon the Prophet was persuaded by another lying Prophet and returned [to Bethel: As also what words the wicked Prophet made use of, to persuade the King; and thereby alienated his mind from God.
This man was bedrid, by reason of the infirmities of old age. However he was informed by his sons concerning the Prophet that was come from Jerusalem, and concerning the signs done by him: Whereupon he was afraid, that this stranger and Prophet should be in better esteem with the King than himself, and obtain greater honour from him, and he gave orders to his sons to saddle his ass presently, and make all ready, that he might go out. Accordingly they made haste to do what they were commanded; and he got upon the ass, and followed after the Prophet. And when he had overtaken him, as he was resting himself under a very large oak tree, that was thick and shady, he at first saluted him; but presently he complained of him, because he had not come into his house, and partaken of his hospitality.
For I am a Prophet as thou art, and worship God in the same manner that thou dost: However, as Jadon was again going to Jerusalem, a lion assaulted him, and pulled him off the beast he rode on, and slew him. This continued till some travellers that saw it came and told it in the city to the false Prophet, who sent his sons, and brought the body unto the city, and made a funeral for him, at great expences. And that as to the altar, it was but new, and had born abundance of sacrifices, and those large ones too: When he had thus spoken, he persuaded the King, and intirely alienated his mind from God, and from doing works that were righteous and holy; and encouraged him to go on in his impious practices.
And so much shall at present suffice to have said concerning Jeroboam. Concerning Rehoboam ; and how God inflicted punishment upon him for his impiety by Shishak , [King of Egypt. These he built first of all in the tribe of Judah. He also built other large cities in the tribe of Benjamin; and walled them about, and put garisons in them all, and captains, and a great deal of corn, and wine, and oil; and he furnished every one of them plentifully with other provisions that were necessary for sustenance.
Moreover he put therein shields, and spears, for many ten thousand men. The Priests also that were in all Israel, and the Levites; and if there were any of the multitude that were good and righteous men, they gathered themselves together to him: For they were not willing to be forced to worship the heifers, which Jeroboam had made: And after he had married a woman of his own kindred, and had by her three children born to him, he married also another of his own kindred who was daughter of Absalom by Tamar, whose name was Maachah ; and by her he had a son, whom he named Abijah.
He had moreover many other children by other wives. But he loved Maachah above them all. Now he had eighteen legitimate wives, and thirty 16 concubines: Now I cannot but think, that the greatness of a Kingdom, and its change into prosperity, often becomes the occasion of mischief and of transgression to men. For when Rehoboam saw that his Kingdom was so much increased, he went out of the right way unto unrighteous and irreligious practices: For so it usually happens, that the manners of subjects are corrupted at the same time with those of their governors: Agreeably whereto it now happened to the subjects of Rehoboam: But God sent Shishak, King of Egypt, to punish them for their unjust behaviour towards him.
Concerning whom Herodotus was mistaken, and applied his actions to Sesostris. For this Shishak, 41 in the fifth year of the reign of Rehoboam, made an expedition [into Judea] with many ten thousand men. For he had one thousand two hundred chariots in number that followed him: These he brought with him: But Shemaiah the Prophet told them, that God threatned to forsake them, as they had themselves forsaken his worship. When they heard this, they were immediately in a consternation of mind; and seeing no way of deliverance, they all earnestly set themselves to confess that God might justly overlook them, since they had been guilty of impiety towards him, and had let his laws lie in confusion.
So when God saw them in that disposition, and that they acknowledged their sins, he told the Prophet, that he would not destroy them: So when Shishak had taken the city without fighting, because Rehoboam was afraid, and received him into it; yet did not Shishak stand to the covenants he had made; but he spoiled the temple, and emptied the treasures of God, and those of the King, and carried off innumerable ten thousands of gold and silver; and left nothing at all behind him.
He also took away the bucklers of gold, and the shields, which Solomon the King had made. Nay he did not leave the golden quivers which David had taken from the King of Zobah; and had dedicated to God. And when he had thus done, he returned to his own Kingdom. Now it is manifest that he intended to declare that our nation was subdued by him: But as to such matters let every one speak what is agreeable to his own opinion.
So instead of famous warlike expeditions, and that glory which results from those publick actions, he reigned in great quietness; though not without fear: And he died, when he had lived fifty seven years, and reigned seventeen. He was buried in Jerusalem, in the sepulchres of the Kings. And his son Abijah succeeded him in the Kingdom: And this was the conclusion of these affairs. It must be now our business to relate the affairs of Jeroboam; and how he ended his life. For he ceased not nor rested to be injurious to God; but every day raised up altars upon high mountains, and went on making Priests out of the multitude.
How Jeroboam was beaten by Abijah: And also how, after the death of Jeroboam , Baasha destroyed his son Nadab , and all the house of Jeroboam. And whereas a son of his lay sick at that time, who was called Abijah ; he enjoined his wife to lay aside her robes, and to take the garments belonging to a private person, and to go to Ahijah the Prophet: He also enjoined her, when she came to him, to enquire concerning the child, as if she were a stranger, whether he should escape this distemper.
So she did as her husband bad her; and changed her habit, and came to the city Shiloh: And as she was going into his house, his eyes being then dim with age, God appeared to him, and informed him of two things; that the wife of Jeroboam was come to him: Why concealest thou thy self? Thou art not concealed from God: Since I made thee a great man, when thou wast little, or rather was nothing; and rent the Kingdom from the house of David, and gave it to thee; and thou hast been unmindful of these benefits; hast left off my worship; hast made thee molten gods, and honoured them; I will in like manner cast thee down again, and will destroy all thy house, and make them food for the dogs and the fowls.
For a certain King is rising up, by my appointment, over all this people, who shall leave none of the family of Jeroboam remaining. The multitude also shall themselves partake of the same punishment; and shall be cast out of this good land, and shall be scattered into the places beyond Euphrates; because they have followed the wicked practices of their King, and have worshipped the gods that he made, and forsaken my sacrifices.
But do thou, O woman, make haste back to thy husband, and tell him this message. But thou shalt then find thy son dead: Yet shall he be buried with the lamentation of all the multitude, and honoured with a general mourning: So she was in lamentation as she went along the road, and mourned for the death of her son, that was just at hand.
She was indeed in a miserable condition at the unavoidable misery of his death, and went apace; but in circumstances very unfortunate, because of her son: Yet was she forced to make such haste on account of her husband. Accordingly when she was come back, she found that the child had given up the ghost, as the Prophet had said; and she related all circumstances to the King. Yet did not Jeroboam lay any of these things to heart; but he brought together a very numerous army, and made a warlike expedition against Abijah, the son of Rehoboam, who had succeeded his father in the Kingdom of the two tribes.
For he despised him, because of his age. But when he heard of the expedition of Jeroboam, he was not affrighted at it; but proved of a couragious temper of mind, superior both to his youth, and to the hopes of his enemy. So he chose him an army out of the two tribes, and met Jeroboam, at a place called mount Zemaraim: His army consisted of four hundred thousand: Now as the armies stood in array ready for action, and dangers, and were just going to fight, Abijah stood upon an elevated place, and, beckoning with his hand, he desired the multitude and Jeroboam himself to hear first with silence what he had to say.
However I do not suppose he will enjoy it any longer: Yet when you were not any farther unjustly treated by my father, than that he did not speak to you so as to please you; and this only in compliance with the advice of wicked men, you in anger forsook him, as you pretended; but in reality you withdrew your selves from God, and from his laws. Although it had been right for you to have forgiven a man that was young in age, and not used to govern people, not only some disagreeable words; but if his youth and unskilfulness in affairs had led him into some unfortunate actions: For men ought to excuse the sins of posterity, on account of the benefactions of parents.
But you considered nothing of all this then, neither do you consider it now; but come with so great an army against us. And what is it you depend upon for victory? Is it upon these golden heifers, and the altars that you have on high places? Or is it the exceeding multitude of your army which gives you such good hopes? Yet certainly there is no strength at all in an army of many ten thousands when the war is unjust.
For we ought to place our surest hope of success against our enemies in righteousness alone, and in piety towards God. Which hope we justly have, since we have kept the laws from the beginning; and have worshipped our own God, who was not made by hands out of corruptible matter; nor was he formed by a wicked King, in order to deceive the multitude: I therefore give you counsel even now to repent, and to take better advice, and to leave off the prosecution of the war; to call to mind the laws of your countrey; and to reflect what it hath been that hath advanced you to so happy a state as you are now in.
This was the speech which Abijah made to the multitude. But while he was still speaking, Jeroboam sent some of his soldiers privately to encompass Abijab round about, on certain parts of the camp that were not taken notice of. And when he was thus within the compass of the enemy, his army was affrighted, and their courage failed them. But Abijah encouraged them, and exhorted them to place their hopes on God: He left behind him twenty two sons, and sixteen daughters: Under his reign the countrey of the Israelites enjoyed peace for ten years.
And so far concerning Abijah, the son of Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as his history hath come down to us. But Jeroboam, the King of the ten tribes, died when he had governed them two and twenty years. In these two years he made an expedition against Gibbethon, a city of the Philistines, and continued the siege in order to take it: So the house of Jeroboam suffered the just punishment of his impiety, and of his wicked actions.
How Zerah , King of the Ethiopians , was beaten by Asa: He made a reformation of his Kingdom, and cut off whatsoever was wicked therein, and purified it from every impurity. Now he had an army of chosen men that were armed with targets and spears; out of the tribe of Judah three hundred thousand; and out of the tribe of Benjamin that bore shields and drew bows, two hundred and fifty thousand. Now when Zerah had passed so far with his own army, Asa met him, and put his army in aray over against him; in a valley called Zephathah , not far from the city.
And when he saw the multitude of the Ethiopians, he cryed out, and besought God to give them the victory, and that he might kill many ten thousands of the enemy. While Asa was saying this, God gave him a signal of victory; and joining battel cheerfully on account of what God had foretold about it, he slew a great many of the Ethiopians: And when they left off killing their enemies, they betook themselves to spoiling them, for the city Gerar was already taken; and to spoiling their camp. So that they carried off much gold, and much silver, and a great deal of [other] prey, and camels, and great cattel, and flocks of sheep.
Accordingly when Asa and his army had obtained such a victory, and such wealth from God, they returned to Jerusalem. Now as they were coming, a Prophet, whose name was Azariah , met them on the road, and bad them stop their journey a little: But your cities shall be overthrown, and your nation scattered over the whole earth, and live the life of strangers and wanderers. When the King and the people heard this, they rejoiced; and all in common, and every one in particular took great care to behave themselves righteously. The King also sent some to take care, that those in the countrey should observe the laws also.
And this was the state of Asa, King of the two tribes. I now return to Baasha, the King of the multitude of the Israelites, who slew Nadab, the son of Jeroboam, and retained the government. He dwelt in the city Tirzah; having made that his habitation; and reigned twenty four years. He became more wicked and impious than Jeroboam or his son. He did a great deal of mischief to the multitude; and was injurious to God. For thus did Baasha, when the Prophet foretold to him what would come to pass, grow worse; as if what were threatened, the perdition of his family, and the destruction of his house; which are really among the greatest of evils; were good things: And at last he took his army, and assaulted a certain considerable city called Ramah , which was forty furlongs distant from Jerusalem: So they went and burnt some of them, and spoiled others: Now when the King of Israel heard this, he left off building and fortifying Ramah; and returned presently to assist his own people under the distresses they were in.
But Asa made use of the materials that were prepared for building that city, for building in the same place two strong cities; the one of which was called Geba , and the other Mizpah. So that after this Baasha had no leisure to make expeditions against Asa: For they were all busied in the siege of Gibbethon, a city of the Philistines.
But the army that was besieging Gibbethon, when they heard what had befallen the King, and that when Zimri had killed him he had gained the Kingdom; they made Omri their general King. Who drew off his army from Gibbethon, and came to Tirzah, where the royal palace was, and assaulted the city, and took it by force. But when Zimri saw that the city had none to defend it, he fled into the inmost part of the palace, and set it on fire, and burnt himself with it: Upon which the people of Israel were presently divided; and part of them would have Tibni to be King; and part Omri: Now it was in the thirtieth year 23 of the reign of Asa, that Omri reigned for twelve years: But he himself called it Semareon , from Semer , who sold him the mountain whereon he built it.
Now Omri was no way different from those Kings that reigned before him; but only that he grew worse than they.
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For they all sought how they might turn the people away from God, by their daily wicked practices. And on that account it was that God made one of them to be slain by another; and that no one person of their families should remain. This Omri also died at Samaria: For many of these Kings of Israel, they and their familys, were miserably destroyed, and taken away one by another, in a short time, for their transgression, and wickedness. And all men allowed that he followed the works of David his fore-father, and this both in courage and piety. But we are not obliged now to speak any more of the affairs of this King.
How Ahab , when he had taken Jezebel to wife, became more wicked than all the Kings that had been before him. Of the actions of the Prophet Elijah: Now Ahab, the King of Israel, dwelt in Samaria, and held the government for twenty two years; and made no alteration in the conduct of the Kings that were his predecessors, but only in such things as were of his own invention for the worse, and in his most gross wickedness.
He imitated them in their wicked courses, and in their injurious behaviour towards God: For he worshipped the heifers that he had made; and he contrived other absurd objects of worship besides those heifers: This woman was active and bold; and fell into so great a degree of impurity and madness, that she built a temple to the god of the Tyrians, which they call Belus , and planted a grove of all sorts of trees: The King also himself had many such about him: For as for his food, ravens brought it to him every day.
For [God told him] that he should there find a woman who was a widow, that should give him sustenance. So when he was not far off the city, he saw a woman that laboured with her own hands, gathering of sticks. The Ceylon traditions, quoted above from Hardy, call its length 3 inches less than a carpenter's cubit. Hardy accounts for this by supposing that the original footmark was destroyed in the end of the sixteenth century.
But Ibn Batuta, in the 14th, states it at 11 spans, or more than the modern report.
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These discrepancies remind one of the ancient Buddhist belief regarding such footmarks, that they seemed greater or smaller in proportion to the faith of the visitor! See Koeppen , I. The chains, of which Ibn Batuta gives a particular account, exist still.
The highest was called he says the chain of the Shahadat , or Credo, because the fearful abyss below made pilgrims recite the profession of belief. Ashraf, a Persian poet of the 15th century, author of an Alexandriad, ascribes these chains to the great conqueror, who devised them, with the assistance of the philosopher Bolinas , in order to scale the mountain, and reach the sepulchre of Adam. See Ouseley , I. There are inscriptions on some of the chains, but I find no account of them. Skeen's Adam's Peak , Ceylon, , p. Sakya Sinha, Sakya Muni, or Gautama, originally called Siddharta, was the son of Suddhodhana, the Kshatriya prince of Kapilavastu, a small state north of the Ganges, near the borders of Oudh.
His high destiny had been foretold, as well as the objects that would move him to adopt the ascetic life. To keep these from his knowledge, his father caused three palaces to be built, within the limits of which the prince should pass the three seasons of the year, whilst guards were posted to bar the approach of the dreaded objects. But these precautions were defeated by inevitable destiny and the power of the Devas. When the prince was sixteen he was married to the beautiful Yasodhara, daughter of the King of Koli, and 40, other princesses also became the inmates of his harem.
The prince leaped into the chariot, and proceeded towards a garden at a little distance from the palace, attended by a great retinue. On his way he saw a decrepit old man, with broken teeth, grey locks, and a form bending towards the ground, his trembling steps supported by a staff a Deva had taken this form The prince enquired what strange figure it was that he saw; and he was informed that it was an old man. He then asked if the man was born so, and the charioteer answered that he was not, as he was once young like themselves.
The prince returns home and informs his father of his intention to become an ascetic, seeing how undesirable is life tending to such decay. His father conjures him to put away such thoughts, and to enjoy himself with his princesses, and he strengthens the guards about the palaces. Four months later like circumstances recur, and the prince sees a leper, and after the same interval a dead body in corruption. Lastly, he sees a religious recluse, radiant with peace and tranquillity, and resolves to delay no longer.
He leaves his palace at night, after a look at his wife Yasodhara and the boy just born to him, and betakes himself to the forests of Magadha, where he passes seven years in extreme asceticism. At the end of that time he attains the Buddhahood. See Hardy's Manual p. The latter part of the story told by Marco, about the body of the prince being brought to his father, etc. Sakya was 80 years of age when he died under the sal trees in Kusinara. The strange parallel between Buddhistic ritual, discipline, and costume, and those which especially claim the name of CATHOLIC in the Christian Church, has been often noticed; and though the parallel has never been elaborated as it might be, some of the more salient facts are familiar to most readers.
Still many may be unaware that Buddha himself, Siddharta the son of Suddodhana, has found his way into the Roman martyrology as a Saint of the Church. In the first edition a mere allusion was made to this singular story, for it had recently been treated by Professor Max Mueller, with characteristic learning and grace. See Contemporary Review for July, , p. But the matter is so curious and still so little familiar that I now venture to give it at some length. It was translated into all the chief European languages, including Scandinavian and Sclavonic tongues.
An Icelandic version dates from the year ; one in the Tagal language of the Philippines was printed at Manilla in The episodes and apologues with which the story abounds have furnished materials to poets and story-tellers in various ages and of very diverse characters; e. Adams, author of the Kings Messengers. The basis of this romance is the story of Siddharta. The story of Barlaam and Josaphat first appears among the works in Greek of St. John of Damascus, a theologian of the early part of the 8th century, who, before he devoted himself to divinity had held high office at the Court of the Khalif Abu Jafar Almansur.
The outline of the story is as follows: Thomas had converted the people of India to the truth; and after the eremitic life originated in Egypt many in India adopted it. After this King had long been childless, a son, greatly desired, is born to him, a boy of matchless beauty. They foretell for the prince glory and prosperity beyond all his predecessors in the kingdom.
One sage, most learned of all, assents to this, but declares that the scene of these glories will not be the paternal realm, and that the child will adopt the faith that his father persecutes. This prediction greatly troubled King Abenner. In a secluded city he caused a splendid palace to be erected, within which his son was to abide, attended only by tutors and servants in the flower of youth and health. No one from without was to have access to the prince; and he was to witness none of the afflictions of humanity, poverty, disease, old age, or death, but only what was pleasant, so that he should have no inducement to think of the future life; nor was he ever to hear a word of CHRIST or His religion.
And, hearing that some monks still survived in India, the King in his wrath ordered that any such, who should be found after three days, should be burnt alive. The Prince grows up in seclusion, acquires all manner of learning, and exhibits singular endowments of wisdom and acuteness. At last he urges his father to allow him to pass the limits of the palace, and this the King reluctantly permits, after taking all precautions to arrange diverting spectacles, and to keep all painful objects at a distance.
Or let us proceed in the Old English of the Golden Legend. And on a tyme thus as the Kynges sone wente he mette a mesell and a blynde man, and wha he sawe them he was abasshed and enquyred what them eyled. And his seruautes sayd: These ben passions that comen to men. And he demaunded yf the passyons came to all men. And they sayd nay. Tha sayd he, ben they knowen whiche men shall suffre And they answered, Who is he that may knowe ye aduentures of men. And he began to be moche anguysshous for ye incustomable thynge hereof. And another tyme he found a man moche aged, whiche had his chere frouced, his tethe fallen, and he was all croked for age And tha he demaunded what sholde be ye ende.
And they sayd deth And this yonge man remembered ofte in his herte these thynges, and was in grete dyscoforte, but he shewed hy moche glad tofore his fader, and he desyred moche to be enformed and taught in these thyges. At this time BARLAAM, a monk of great sanctity and knowledge in divine things, who dwelt in the wilderness of Sennaritis, having received a divine warning, travels to India in the disguise of a merchant, and gains access to Prince Josaphat, to whom he unfolds the Christian doctrine and the blessedness of the monastic life.
Suspicion is raised against Barlaam, and he departs. But all efforts to shake the Prince's convictions are vain. As a last resource the King sends for a magician called Theudas, who removes the Prince's attendants and substitutes seductive girls, but all their blandishments are resisted through prayer. The King abandons these attempts and associates his son with himself in the government.
The Prince uses his power to promote religion, and everything prospers in his hand. Finally King Abenner is drawn to the truth, and after some years of penitence dies. Josaphat then surrenders the kingdom to a friend called Barachias, and proceeds into the wilderness, where he wanders for two years seeking Barlaam, and much buffeted by the demons. Josaphat lefte his realme the xxv. This is but the skeleton of the story, but the episodes and apologues which round its dimensions, and give it its mediaeval popularity, do not concern our subject.
In this skeleton the story of Siddharta, mutatis mutandis is obvious. The story was first popular in the Greek Church, and was embodied in the lives of the saints, as recooked by Simeon the Metaphrast, an author whose period is disputed, but was in any case not later than A Cretan monk called Agapios made selections from the work of Simeon which were published in Romaic at Venice in under the name of the Paradise , and in which the first section consists of the story of Barlaam and Josaphat. This has been frequently reprinted as a popular book of devotion.
A copy before me is printed at Venice in From the Greek Church the history of the two saints passed to the Latin, and they found a place in the Roman martyrology under the 27th November. When this first happened I have not been able to ascertain. Their history occupies a large space in the Speculum Historiale of Vincent of Beauvais, written in the 13th century, and is set forth, as we have seen, in the Golden Legend of nearly the same age.
They are recognised by Baronius, and are to be found at p. Here in Palermo is a church bearing the dedication Divo Iosaphat. Professor Mueller attributes the first recognition of the identity of the two stories to M. But in fact I find that the historian de Couto had made the discovery long before. He says, speaking of Budao Buddha , and after relating his history:.
With reference to this story we have been diligent in enquiring if the ancient Gentiles of those parts had in their writings any knowledge of St. Josaphat who was converted by Barlam, who in his Legend is represented as the son of a great King of India, and who had just the same up-bringing, with all the same particulars, that we have recounted of the life of the Budao And as a thing seems much to the purpose, which was told us by a very old man of the Salsette territory in Bacaim, about Josaphat, I think it well to cite it: As I was travelling in the Isle of Salsette, and went to see that rare and admirable Pagoda which we call the Canara Pagoda made in a mountain, with many halls cut out of one solid rock Josaphat to bring him up therein in seclusion, as the story tells.
And as it informs us that he was the son of a great King in India, it may well be, as we have just said, that he was the Budao, of whom they relate such marvels. Dominie Valentyn, not being well read in the Golden Legend, remarks on the subject of Buddha: Diego de Couto stands by the belief that he was certainly Joshua , which is still more absurd! Edouard Laboulaye, in the Journal des Debats of the 26th of July, About the same time, Professor F.
Hilaire on Buddha, arrived at the same conclusion. In , Professor T. Rhys Davids has devoted some pages xxxvi. In that work are included not only the saints first canonised at Rome, but all those who, having been already canonised elsewhere, were then acknowledged by the Pope and the College of Rites to be saints of the Catholic Church of Christ. Among such, under the date of the 27th of November, are included "The holy Saints Barlaam and Josaphat, of India, on the borders of Persia, whose wonderful acts Saint John of Damascus has described.
Where and when they were first canonised, I have been unable, in spite of much investigation, to ascertain. Petrus de Natalibus, who was Bishop of Equilium, the modern Jesolo, near Venice, from to , wrote a Martyrology called Catalogus Sanctorum ; and in it, among the 'Saints,' he inserts both Barlaam and Josaphat, giving also a short account of them derived from the old Latin translation of St. It is from this work that Baronius, the compiler of the authorised Martyrology now in use, took over the names of these two saints, Barlaam and Josaphat.
But, so far as I have been able to ascertain, they do not occur in any martyrologies or lists of saints of the Western Church older than that of Petrus de Natalibus. In the corresponding manual of worship still used in the Greek Church, however, we find, under 26th August, the name 'of the holy Iosaph, son of Abener, King of India. No history is added to the simple statement I have quoted; and I do not know on what authority it rests.
But there is no doubt that it is in the East, and probably among the records of the ancient church of Syria, that a final solution of this question should be sought. Some of the more learned of the numerous writers who translated or composed new works on the basis of the story of Josaphat, have pointed out in their notes that he had been canonised; and the hero of the romance is usually called St.
Josaphat in the titles of these works, as will be seen from the Table of the Josaphat literature below. But Professor Liebrecht, when identifying Josaphat with the Buddha, took no notice of this; and it was Professor Max Mueller, who has done so much to infuse the glow of life into the dry bones of Oriental scholarship, who first pointed out the strange fact--almost incredible, were it not for the completeness of the proof--that Gotama the Buddha, under the name of St.
Josaphat, is now officially recognised and honoured and worshipped throughout the whole of Catholic Christendom as a Christian saint!
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Rhys Davids gives further a Bibliography, pp. Zotenberg wrote a learned memoir N. There are many MSS. New researches made by Professor E. Kuhn, of Munich Barlaam und Joasaph. Eine Bibliographisch-literargeschichtliche Studie , , seem to prove that during the 6th century, in that part of the Sassanian Empire bordering on India, in fact Afghanistan, Buddhism and Christianity were gaining ground at the expense of the Zoroastrian faith, and that some Buddhist wrote in Pehlevi a Book of Yudasaf Bodhisatva ; a Christian, finding pleasant the legend, made an adaptation of it from his own point of view, introducing the character of the monk Balauhar Barlaam to teach his religion to Yudasaf, who could not, in his Christian disguise, arrive at the truth by himself like a Bodhisatva.
This Pehlevi version of the newly-formed Christian legend was translated into Syriac, and from Syriac was drawn a Georgian version, and, in the first half of the 7th century, the Greek Text of John, a monk of the convent of St. Saba, near Jerusalem, by some turned into St. John of Damascus, who added to the story some long theological discussions.